Items non exchangeable and non refundable are superseded by Singapore Lemon Law

Customers will be given ‘warning’ during checkouts at the cashier that their items are non exchangeable and non refundable. The cashiers say it according to their management’s instruction: ‘please note that these items are not exchangeable and non refundable’. Some are ‘stamped’ on the receipt (Fig. 1).

I would usually say, ‘yeah, ok’. Why would I even need to bother telling the cashier who is not in a management position about Lemon Law? But I know what Lemon Law is and my rights to replace/exchange a DEFECTIVE GOOD.

So, for all customers, your rights are protected under Consumer Protection (Fair Trading) Act Chapter 52A (, under Part III Additional Consumer Rights in Respect to Non-conforming Goods (i.e., defective goods).

If you got a defective goods, you can get it replaced with the same design, size, or model of the product. In the event that there is no suitable replacement, you can get an exchange (provided that you are agreeable), i.e., to switch the defective item with something of equivalent trait or value. If there is no suitable equivalent value to exchange, you can get a refund!

Some company are more open about their return policy, e.g., Art Friend (Fig. 2).

So, if you encounter an outlet or staff that says your goods are non-exchangeable and non-refundable, THE RULE IS NOT BINDING BECAUSE IT IS SUPERCEDED BY LEMON LAW.

Fig. 1 items sold are non-exchangeable and non-refundable by Sketchers Singapore
Fig. 2 Art Friend receipt conform to the Lemon Law requirement (somewhat, because Lemon law protects consumers longer, especially when the defect may take time to reveal itself).


  1. Consumer Protection (Fair Trading) Act Chapter 52A (
  2. What is Lemon Law?, 29 May 2021 (

Daun Ketapang (or Indian Almond Leave) is used to keep betta fish

Betta fish is also known as Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) found in freshwater and native to South-East Asia.

Aquarists who keep this fish will use Daun Ketapang (Indian Almond leave, Terminalia catappa) in the water when their fish is sick or lethargic. The dried leave are added to the water, where they will lower its pH and infuse the water with beneficial chemicals. One major chemical component is tannic acid and tannins.

The Ketapang is useful to treat fish skin ailment. The antimicrobial tannin kills bacteria, fungus, and viruses. It is better alternative to the fish antibiotics (ref. 2)

How to make almond leaf extract? The tannin and other phytochemicals are water soluble. You can increase the chemical release by pouring hot water over the dry leave and incubate overnight until the water changes colour. Keep the solution chilled for months.

Tannin is a non-toxic phenol that function as crosslinking agent (ref. 3). It is used to agglutinate microbes in order to inactivate them. Its crosslinking property is beneficial in wound healing (ref. 4)

Tannin has been used in leather-making industry where curing involves chemical crosslinking afforded by adding tannin to the leather (ref. 5).


  1. Where to find Ketapang leaf (aka Indian Almond Leaf) (
  2. Indian Almond Leaves: Keeping your fish happy, naturally, 7 Apr 2021 (
  3. Effect of tannic acid as crosslinking agent on fish skin gelatin-silver nanocomposite film (
  4. The use of tannins in the local treatment of burn wounds – a pilot study (
  5. Tanning (leather) (